... main regions of the Global South. These criteria potentially can narrow down the circle of countries that may be viewed as the second wave of BRICS to the following emerging economies:
as a G20 member and the largest economy in ASEAN
as the second most significant economic power in South Asia after India
as one of the leading economic powers in Africa
as one of the heavyweights in Latin America
... terms of civil rights and freedoms. However, socialist Vietnam could take advantage of its geopolitical position - the growth of Chinese power pushed the smaller countries of Southeast Asia to forget about past grievances and integrate this country into ASEAN.
Cuba's geopolitical position is much more complicated. Its proximity to the US mainland and remoteness from other great powers leaves no room for any serious reconciliation with the Americans. Objective economic data and other development indicators ...
... case it is more inclusive, open and balanced with respect to the interests of developed and developing economies.
GT: Southeast Asia has become an important venue for multilateral cooperation this year, a year that you have called "the Year of ASEAN centrality." Can you elaborate on what role ASEAN has played in the G20 and the world?
ASEAN is at the heart of a region of the global economy that is demonstrating some of the highest growth rates in the world. The share of ASEAN ...
The effectiveness of ASEAN’s institutional balancing—now a hallmark of the association—has been somewhat compromised
In 2022, three ASEAN nations assumed the chairmanship of significant regional and global dialogue structures. For the first time in the history, G20 ...
... forming their integration platforms. This prompts increasing competition for platforms in the most dynamic regions of the developing world, as is exemplified by the exacerbating competition between the U.S. and China in Asia-Pacific.
The nations of ASEAN make the acute competition between Beijing and Washington particularly obvious. This regional bloc exhibits one of the best dynamics, both in its pace of economic growth and in building a ramified network of economic alliances in global economy....
ASEAN can become one of the leading forces of a rejuvenated drive at a globalisation that is balanced, inclusive and sustainable
Given its neutrality and mediation capabilities ASEAN could lead the creation of a global platform for regional integration ...
... the context of rebuilding foreign economic relations and creating a new model of the global order, the most important directions are cooperation with world powers – China and India as well as Brazil – and with leading regional players – Turkey, ASEAN countries, the Gulf states, Iran, Egypt, Algeria, Israel, South Africa, Pakistan, Argentina, Mexico and others.
It is in these areas, rather than in traditional Euro-Atlantic arenas, that the main resources of diplomacy, foreign economic relations,...
... heavyweights (possibly members of G20 from the Global South). The alternative is the aggregation of the regional integration blocs of all of the five BRICS members – represented by the BEAMS platforms consisting of BIMSTEC, Eurasian Economic Union, the ASEAN-China FTA, Mercosur and the South African Customs Union – leading to the addition of up to 25 members (the 5 times 5 geometric progression – or the 5 BRICS taken to the power of 2) of the BRICS+ circle that are the regional neighbors/partners ...
... to maximize their strategic autonomy vis-a-vis the American and Chinese superpowers. It is with this incipient trend in mind what is now unfolding in Eurasia as India would do well to attempt its replication in the Indo-Pacific region with respect to ASEAN. To explain the reason behind this policy proposal, it’s enough to cite the opening remarks of the Singaporean Foreign Minister during mid-June’s special ASEAN Foreign Ministers meeting with India.
Mr. Vivian Balakrishnan
that “The ...
... additional contracts
. This is precisely what happened with China’s trade agreement with Hong Kong, which covered a limited number of service industry sectors and investment in 2004, as well as with Beijing’s agreement with Macau. The agreement with ASEAN evolved in a similar manner. Importantly, China has stayed true to this integration course for two decades.
The RCEP may very well evolve in the same way. While it is true that there are no fundamentally new agreements within this partnership in ...