To read Part I follow the link.Image: 'Soldiers of the Revolution' Vladimir Kholuyev Long-term Path Dependence In the previous part of the article, the “genetic” path dependence and its potential impact on the Russian development trajectory was discussed. Meanwhile, it is also important to analyse another version of the path dependence problem to have a clear understanding of what type of path Russia might have been following. Douglas North, an American economist, co-recipient with Robert Fogel of...
- 04.06.2021 15:23:39
From a humanist and democratic point of view, it makes sense to recognize these “de facto” states on a case-by-case basis as legitimate, for the sake of egalitarian representation. When the Soviet Union fell in 1991, the disintegration of a centralized nation into individual nation states did not occur without problems arising. Due to various issues about national and ethnic identities, various “de facto” states formed-nations who have sovereignty over their territory, but are not recognized by most...
- 27.04.2021 11:05:41
... Swaran Singh, had just signed the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation. This treaty reflected the geopolitical landscape of that historical moment. On the one side, the agreement revealed, once again, how deep the rift between the USSR and China was. On the other one, India was looking for a hegemonic ally in the midst of the Bangladesh Liberation War.The Indian Express Archive With the collapse of the Soviet Union, it took two years for Boris Yeltsin to make a step forward. Only ...
- 23.04.2021 13:40:11
... landscape change not only of a state, but of a region or the world as a whole. The dissolution of Yugoslavia and Kosovo’s demands for autonomy, the split of Yugoslavia, separation of the satellite states of the Soviet Union and the disintegration of the USSR – these brought a big change in a system of international relations, which was not made by peaceful means only (including violent conflict in certain cases). However, despite the previous examples in history that show the struggle and negative ...
- 24.03.2021 16:00:41
In the past couple of years, Russia has been thrust into the American political spotlight like never before, earning itself both a reputation and mythology that posits Russia as the ultimate James Bond villain. At the heart of this mythology are misconceptions about Russia's aims, goals, and intentions that originate from an American media culture that is starved of intellectual diversity when it comes to Russia. That is, Russia is tarred as a pariah, an arch-nemesis of the United States, and the...
- 21.10.2020 10:59:31
- 12.05.2020 18:23:35
... and privations were so severe they pushed a tottering Tsarist Russia over the brink of revolution.
Later, against Nazi Germany, the partners were shuffled around in this game of geopolitical musical chairs, but the song remained the same – let the USSR bleed for Britain and the US, who were waiting in the wings to claim victory and pick up the spoils.
America emerged as the principal beneficiary of that war, while things did not go according to plan for the British, who ever since have been relegated ...
- 02.10.2019 14:11:03
Marshal Bulganin and Premier Khrushchev visited Bangalore, India in the 1950s and planted two tall trees there with great pomp and ceremony, to signify the growing solidarity between India and the USSR.
It is said the Bulganin tree started growing at a slant right away and toppled over a few years later (to be replanted discreetly in a less prominent space). Apparently, a few years after that, the Khrushchev tree also toppled over.
- 16.09.2019 13:14:19
... collapse of the Soviet Union.
Because of that terrible decade, Russia finds itself once again having to regroup and rebuild, to get back to the position of technological superiority that had reached its peak, ironically, just before the dissolution of the USSR.
It is well known that Russia successfully accomplished several cycles of re-industrialization and modernization, going back to the ‘Great Reforms of 1861. After the precipitous drop of the First World War and Civil War came the recovery of the ...
- 11.09.2019 16:51:29
... ceasefire, no peace conference, no formal treaty and guaranties, no expression of interests and settlement. Domestically, there was no general debate – even within the Soviet Communist Party ranks, there was no popular vote or referendum (if not for the USSR, at least for the RF), nor the Parliament’s decision to endorse it. Just an off-hand decree. After that, only the gazing facial expression of than Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze, who circles around and unconvincingly repeats: “we ...
- 11.09.2019 12:00:53
... From the time when Pakistan emerged as a nation-state, the Army has played a magnificent role in convening the foreign policy objective of the country. Its function revitalized since the cold war between America and the former Soviet Union began and USSR occupied Afghanistan. Pakistan became the number one strategic ally of America in South Asia.The Pentagon heavily invested on the Pak army pumped billion of dollars; provided the army with the lasted military technology and equipment. Moreover,...
- 17.08.2017 11:56:36
... cost of abandoning material benefits that could come in exchange for a more pragmatic policy towards the former hegemon of the region. It has been considered to be naive to recognize in the general assessment of the reasons behind the collapse of the USSR that the main reason was the crisis of legitimisation of the system, ie the moral and ideological factor; on the contrary, the brutal diagnosis of Zbigniew Brzezinski has been accepted, and it was proving that Russia is simply a defeated country ...
- 14.06.2017 17:48:28
... whose behavior ranged from accommodating ethnic Georgian nationalism to addressing concerns of minorities in Georgia as a way to check Georgian nationalism when it became too anti-Russian/anti-Soviet (something which continued after the fall of the USSR up through today).
Much of American history, likewise, is the story of race relations between white masters and black slaves in the South and the relationship between the rest of the country and the South when it came to limiting the institution ...
- 12.10.2016 15:03:00
... actions. Many of these same failures are all too apparent in the ongoing NATO-Russia confrontation, in particular the lack of empathy and critical self-assessment.
Taking place as it did in a period of particular hostility between the USA and USSR, effective strategic communication relaying the scope and explicit purpose of Able Archer should have been paramount. Instead the report reveals that the US intelligence community routinely dismissed the concerns raised by the Soviet leadership relating ...
- 29.08.2016 18:05:00
... revenue that involved the construction and financing of Trump’s marquee SoHo property in New York City. The main partner driving this project way Bayrock, was a company run by Tevfik Arif, a man who in the Soviet-era was an economic official for the USSR. His point man for the deal, Felix Sater, was a convicted Russian mobster; financing involved money from an Iceland firm known for drawing money from Putin-linked Russians, as well as from a financier hailing from the former Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan ...
- 16.08.2016 17:46:00
Having never officially observed an election in Brazil former U.S. president Jimmy Carter and the organization he founded to promote ethical democracy have given unequivocal support to president (sic) Michel Temer and his team in their efforts to safeguard Brazil's democratic values.
The endorsement, signed by Carter, congratulated prominent electoral law specialist Torquato Jardim on his appointment as Temer's new Transparency Minister. It went on the official government website...
- 20.06.2016 09:29:00
Donovan (Hanks) negotiates and bluffs his way around the traps and pitfalls set by both organizations, and the fabled East German “Stasi” (ministry of state security) and their puppet justice minister.
Holding to the tradition of USSR-style “historical revisionism,” to this day the Kremlin has never acknowledged that Fisher was a spy on behalf of the Soviet Union operating in the United States. It is known, however, that Fisher was a Soviet citizen. A heavy smoker,...
- 04.11.2015 22:00:00
... logistics. Russia, while not the top dog, is an important part of that mix.
But the large volumes presented by available open source statistics on the BRICS are reminiscent of the Glasnost days of Mikhail Gorbachev and the impending collapse of the USSR command economy. You can't be competitive producing, an award winning volume of, for example, porcelain dinner plates by kilo weight when the rest of the world is measuring the items by units. This is the situation with bulk iron ore and ...
- 02.03.2015 17:45:00
... Size), it makes this route reliant on shipping large hulls of natural resources in fewer vessels; hence the route rests greatly on the energy markets of both the Arctic and wider world, which are naturally volatile. In addition, historic successes of USSR leave a bitter after taste. As Vladimir Mikhailichenko of a Non-Profit Partnership points out, the recent jump is a mere hop in contrast to the volumes achieved in the peak years. In the historic peak of 1987 a total of 6.5 million tons of cargo ...
- 08.01.2014 19:53:00
... the EU aims to win Ukraine to make sure its gas is supposedly more secured and to continue its enlargement policy for both rational and questionable reasons. On the other, Russia aims to make sure it achieves its goal of restoring 80% of the defunct USSR’s market for likewise a myriad of reasons; with Ukraine being the final element in the formation, as Kazakhstan and Belarus are already sitting in the dugout. In this post we will explore this contest with fresh insight from this week’s ...
- 25.10.2013 20:32:00