Representative to the Council of the Federation of the executive body of state power of the Tver Oblast.
President of the Russian Paralympic Committee.
Human Rights Commissioner of the Russian Federation (2004 - 2014).
Graduated from the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. Doctor of Sciences (History), professor.
Worked as researcher at the USSR State Historical Museum, the USSR Museum of the Revolution and the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (USSR Academy of Sciences); senior researcher of the Czech editorial team of the Problems of Peace and Socialism journal (Prague). Headed the section of Far East Policy of the Institute for US and Canadian Studies. Worked at the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Headed the group of experts for analysis and prognosis at the secretariat of the USSR Supreme Soviet.
In 1990, was elected member of the Russian Federation (RF) parliament for the Democratic Russia bloc. Member of the Constitutional Commission.
Co-founder of the YABLOKO party. Member of the State Duma (second and third convocations). Chairman of the State Duma Committee on International Affairs. Vice-Speaker of the State Duma.
Headed the RF parliament’s Committee on Interstate Relations with Former Soviet Republics. Russian Ambassador to the United States, Russian Permanent Observer at the Organization of American States. Chairman of the Soviet National committee on Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region.
Since 2004, Human Rights Commissioner of the Russian Federation.
Recipient of state awards.